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Vienna malt

Vienna malt with the roots on.

Vienna malt with the roots on.

It took me a while to find a good description of Vienna malt. I recently posted a good one from the American Handy Book of the Brewing Malting and Auxilliary Trades by Robert Wahl and Max Henius, so I thought I’d give it a try.

There are three differences between Pale malt and Vienna. First of all Vienna starts with a lower moisture content at 38-42%, like a lager malt. Pale malt is typically 42-44% It also has a slightly warmer germination during the last 4 or 5 days. A warmer germination will promote the development of proteolytic enzymes, the enzymes which act on protein. According to the Handy book the last 5 days of a 10 day germination for Vienna is no higher than 19C or 66F but the example given does go up to 20C. Pale malt is typically germinated at 15-18C  59F-64F or cooler in the example of English malting. Vienna malt is then kilned at a low temperature until it’s at what I’m going to assume is 10% moisture and then cured at increasing temperatures up to 100C  212F for the last hour. So a little hotter than pale which is cured at 80-90C  176F-194F. I often see Vienna malt lumped together with Munich malt in descriptions of malts but judging by this process it’s much closer to pale malt than Munich. Munich malt is more highly modified, it starts with a much higher moisture content. It’s also germinated at warmer temperatures which reach 25C  77F and when kilned it undergoes a stewing period to partially caramelize the malt.

Here are my notes from the book:

Moisture 38-42 % Couch temp. No higher than 66 F or 19 C

Germination period 9-10 days malt never allowed to mat depth 4.5-7 inches

Floor record example:

Temp. Day 1 50-57 F 10-14 C  7- 6.3 inches deep

Day 2 57-63.5F  14-17.5 C 6-5.5 inches deep

Day 3 66-68F  19-20 C  Next 5 days temp maintained at 68F or 20 C 4.7-5.5 inches deep. Turned every 6-8 hrs. Never allowed to mat.

Kilning: 24 hrs.

The malt is loaded on the upper floor  at 95-100 F  35-38 C all draughts being open until it is “air-dry” Unfortunately it does not state what the moisture content is at this point but seeing as how the temperature is increased only during the last 6 hrs. It’s pretty safe to assume that it’s under 10%

“The draught is checked and temperature raised to 144-156F  62-69 C” 

However, an example of a  kiln record  is shown which states that the air temperature goes up to 183 F  84 C during the final 2 hrs. and the malt temperature goes from 149 – 212 F  62-100 C during the last 6 hours. This doesn’t make much sense but the malt temperature is what we’re most concerned with and 100 C sounds about right for a malt that’s slightly darker than pale malt.

The last 6 hours of malt temperatures go like this: 149F 65C, 156F 69C, 171F 77C, 185F 85C, 200F 93C, 202F 95C, 212F 100C.

DSC01311

Store bought lager malt on left, my pale malt in centre, Vienna malt on right.

With my batch of Vienna I brought it inside at room temperature for 5 days after being in the garage at about 16C  61F for the first 5 days. The temperature in our place ranges from 17C  63F at night to 21C  70F during the day so a little on the warm side. It’s a kind of tricky trying to extend the germination to 10 days without the malt becoming over-modified and the acrospire growing too much. On day 6 I saw a couple of  acrospires breaking through the husk so I spread the malt out on a screen at a 1″ depth for two days. This dried out the malt enough to halt the growth. After that I put it back into a bin. At day ten I spread it out again with a fan on it at room temperature overnight. I did this instead of drying it at 35-38C 95-100F. By the next day the moisture content was around 10%, just the right amount to start curing. Small amounts of malt spread thin will dry much faster than the larger amounts stacked up in a real malt house kiln. I also skipped the first two temperature increments in the schedule and started the first hour at 170F  77C. That’s the lowest my oven goes, I could have used the hotplate but I was being too lazy to bring it out,  I figured it would not make a huge difference. I cured it for six hours raising the temperature every hour from 170F to 180F, 190F, 200F, 205F and finally 210F  ( 77C, 82C, 88C, 93C, 96C, 99C ) It’s only slightly darker than my pale malt but the aroma is quite different. It’s a very rich smell  like toasted almond butter, nutty and sweet. It has a nice toasty bread crust flavour. I imagine this would be a great base malt for darker ales, I haven’t tried this yet but drop me a comment if you’ve used Vienna as a base malt in an ale or stout.

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Posted by on April 19, 2015 in Vienna malt

 

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More Kilning Schedules- Notes from The Handy Book

Kilning schedules according to the American Handy Book of the Brewing Malting and Auxiliary Trades by Robert Wahl and Max Henius published in 1902:

Finally a description of Vienna malt!, well it’s missing a few key details but it will have to do. Even though this book is online I thought I’d share these schedules with the Celsius temperatures added. (Makes my life easier) There are a lot of details in this section I have left out. I just tried to include essential information useful for malting on a small scale. (There is an interesting paragraph on the differences of drum malting as opposed to floor malting worth the read if you’re set up that way.) These schedules describe kilning in a 2 story malt kiln where the two floors could be loaded simultaneously with the lower floor being hotter as it would be closer to the heat source.

Kilning of American malt for pale beer: total 48 hrs.

Green malt loaded on upper floor of 2 floor kiln.

Temp raised during 10 hours to 90 F or 32 C

Raised during the next 4 hrs to 120 For 49 C and maintained for 10 hours.

Lower floor

Malt moved to lower floor where the temp is raised over next 4 hours to 130 F or 54.5 C

Raised over the next 12 hours to 150 F or 65.5

Next three hrs to 180 F or 82 C held for 3 hrs.

Unloading and loading accounts for the last 2 hours.

Kilning American malt for extra pale beer: total 48 hrs.

Same upper floor schedule as pale

Temp raised over the next 4 hours to 125 For 52 C

And during the next 12 hours to 130 F or 54.5 C

Then raised within 3 hours to 145 F or 63 C and held for 3 hours.

Kilning American malt for dark beer: total 24 hrs.

On the upper kiln the malt is heated in 5 hrs to 90 For 32 C

In the next 2 hrs to 120 F or 49 C  and held for 5 hrs.

Lower floor brought in 2 hrs to 140 F or 60 C

In the next 5 hrs. To 180 F or 82 C

In the next 2 hrs. To 220 F or 104 C and held for 2 hrs.

English Malting :

According to Thatcher- Steeping liquid 50-54 F  10-12 C

Grain depth on floor 2-10 inches temp 50-54 F  10-12 C turned every 3-5 hrs.

Germination takes 10-15 days

“Sprinkling, if done at all…should not be later than the fifth or seventh day after the grain has left the cistern (steep tank).

Germination is arrested by withering. Malt is spread very thinly on the floor to dry out

Kilning: depth 4-6 inches

First day – 95-100F 35-38 C

Second day raise slowly to 120F 49 C

Third day raise slowly to 140-150F 60-65.5 C

Fourth day 185-200 F 85-93 C for pale malts 200-225 93-107 C or even 230F  110 C for “high-dried” malts 5-6 hrs.

With all malts it is recommended to store for 6-8 weeks before being used.

Unfortunately, the recommendations for crystal malt are disappointing in that he describes the practice of “moistening the malt during the drying process with a solution of sugar and then drying it off at a high temperature” (cheaters)

Malting in Germany:

Three types of malt are distinguished in Germany: Bohemian (Pilsner), Wiener(Vienna), and Bavarian (Munich).

“As to the taste and aroma of the malt, that of the Bohemian type should have no caramel and very little aroma; the Vienna malt , on the other hand , should possess it distinctly, and in the Bavarian this aroma should be very strong, without a bitter empyreumatic” (burnt organic matter) taste. (Had to look that one up)

According to Leyser–Heiss:  Steep water 48-54.5 F 9-12.5 C renewed every 12 hrs. Under unfavorable circumstances the water should be renewed every 6-8 hrs.

Floor depth 11.8-19.7 inches. Turned every 12 hrs.

Maximum temp.of grain bed 70-72.5F 21- 22.5 C

Germination period 6-8 days then spread to a depth of 2 inches to wither.

Malting descriptions taken from Michel’s “Lehrbuch der Bierbrauerei”

Bavarian (Munich): 44-45 % moisture. Steep temp. 54.5F 12.5 C  time of steeping 90-120 hours

Floor depth 8-10 inches turned every 12 hrs. Or more depending on temp.

5-6th day allowed to lie 15-18 hrs in order to mat. Generally malt is allowed to mat twice and the temperature allowed to rise to 72 F or 22 C 

Temp. of germination room at 48-50 F  9-10 C and the temp. of grain rises gradually on it’s own over the germination period.

Kilning: 48 hrs

Upper floor first 24hrs not stated

Lower floor 12 hrs at 104-111 F 40-44 C Drafts or dampers then closed

Raised over 6 hrs to 133-140 F  56-60 C

Temp raised for 3 hrs held for last 3 hrs. Air temp in kiln rises gradually from 140F -183F   60 -84 C  over the 6 hrs.

      Interestingly the temps. For under the lower kiln floor are included for the last 6 hrs which goes from 207 -250 F  97- 121 C for the first 3 and maintained at 250F or 121 C for the last 3.

Temperature in the malt goes from 180 – 223 F  82- 106 C. Quite a difference from the air temperature.

Moisture content during kilning:

On reaching upper floor …37-40%

After the first 12 hours on lower floor……20-24%

After next 6 hours…………..10-14%

After last 6 hours…………….5-6 %

Finished malt (after cooling) 1.5-2 %

Weiner (Vienna) malt

Moisture 38-42 % Couch temp. No higher than 66 F or 19 C

Germination period 9-10 days malt never allowed to mat depth 4.5-7 inches

Floor record example:

Temp. Day 1 50-57 F 10-14 C  7- 6.3 inches deep

Day 2 57-63.5F  14-17.5 C 6-5.5 inches deep

Day 3 66-68F  19-20 C  Next 5 days temp maintained at 68F or 20 C 4.7-5.5 inches deep. Turned every 6-8 hrs. Never allowed to mat.

Kilning: 24 hrs.

The malt is loaded on the upper floor  at 95-100 F  35-38 C all draughts being open until it is “air-dry” Unfortunately it does not state what the moisture content is at this point.

“The draught is checked and temperature raised to 144-156F  62-69 C” 

However, an example of a  kiln record  is shown which states that the air off temperature goes up to 183 F  84 C during the final 2 hrs. and the malt temperature goes from 149 – 212 F  62-100 C during the last 6 hours.

The last 6 hours of malt temperatures go like this: 149F 65C, 156F 69C, 171F 77C, 185F 85C, 200F 93C, 202F 95C, 212F 100C.

Malt for Bohemian Beer (Pilsner Malt)

Moisture 38-42%

Germination room temp. 50-54.5 F  10-12.5 C. 8 inch depth turned every 12 hours when roots develop turn every 6-8 hours and spread lower. Max temp. 68 F 20 C

Time of growth 9-10 days

Kilning 24-36 hours

The last 15 hours of a 30 hour kilning record is shown as an example but the temp. of the first 15 hours are not stated. As kilning would have been done in a two floor kiln we know that the temperature would have gradually increased up to 37.8 C or 100 F during the first 15 hours.

Last 15 hrs – Hours 1-12  Malt temperature raised from 37.8 C – 67.2 C or 100 F-153 F.  Draft holes  open.

Last 3 hours malt temperature at 81.1 C or 178 F Draft holes gradually closed.

 
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Posted by on March 11, 2015 in Malting times and temperatures

 

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