Monthly Archives: October 2014

Malts, times and temperatures

I thought I’d post all my malting procedures in one easy to access page. These procedures are based on the research I’ve done so far.

Amber Malt: From Malt and Malting: An Historical , Scientific and Practical Treatise. H Stopes 1885 p. 159-161

Germinates as a pale malt

  • Kilning: First 12 hrs. below 80F  26.6C
  • End of hour 18  85F  29.4 C
  • End of hour 20 125F 51.6C
  •          ”          21  140F  60C
  •          ”          22  160F  71C
  •          ”          23  180F  82C
  •          ”          24  200F  93C
  •          ”          25  220F  104.4C
  •          ”          26  240F  115.5C
  •          ”          26.5  250  121.1C

Stopes also recommends that the final curing stage (last 5-6 hrs) can be carried out with dry beechwood in the kiln for the best flavour.

Caramel malt:

Steep grain until it reaches 42%-44% moisture ( see my video on how to calculate this)

Germinated until acrospire reached 3/4 length of grain. Keep between 10-15C or 50-60F during steeping and 15-18C 59-64F during germination.

Stew in a large heavy cast iron pot with the lid on or on a cookie sheet covered with foil at 50C 122 F 3 hrs

Raise temperature to 65-71C 150-160 F for 3 hrs.

Kiln at 80C 175 F for 12 hrs to dry (this is now carapils or dextrin malt)

Cure at 250F to darken 1-2 hrs depending on colour desired.

New (more accurate):

  • Total kilning time: 12 hours.
  • Hour 1: 140F 60C covered
  • Hour 2: Increased slowly to 158F covered, (stewing)
  • Hours 3 and 4 -158F signs of liquefication at end of hour 4.
  • For Carapils or Dextrin uncover and put on screens to dry at 131-140°F 55-60°C.
  • For other Caramel malts dry for 3 hours at 158F 70C until moisture is down to 10%
  • Temperature then increased to 225 for 3 hours. Moisture down to 2%  First sample taken (20-25L)
  • Temp. increased to 250F 30 minutes Second sample taken. (20-25L)
  • Additional samples taken every 30 min. at 250F. Third – 1 hour at 250 F approx. 60L
  • 4th – 1 1/2 hours 250F approx. 100L
  • 5th-2 hours at 250F approx. 140L

Pale and Pilsner malts:

Steep 8 hrs. rest 8 hrs and repeat until moisture content is 42-44% (usually takes 2-3 days) Pilsner 38-42%

Germinate until acrospire is  3/4 the length of the grain and starch becomes like a chalky paste when rubbed between your fingers. Can extend time up to 10 days for well-modified malt, usually 5-7.  Keep between 10-15C (50-60F) during steeping and 15-18C 59-64F during germination.

Kiln with ventilation at 35-38C 95-100 F for 22 hrs (or when grain moisture content has reached 10%).  Or keep on screen with a fan at room temp. overnight then kiln at 45-50C.

Raise temp. to 45- 50C 113-122 F for 12 hrs

Option for maltier flavour but less diastatic power- Raise temp to 60C 140F when moisture content is between 35-25%

Cure malt at 90-95C 194F-203F for 2-3 hrs to create pale malt

Cure at 70-80C  158-176F F 2-3 hrs to create pilsner malt.


Modern Brown malt:

This malt differs from other roasted malts in that it has a higher initial kilning temperature. Whereas chocolate and black malts start out as pale malts which are then roasted, brown malt is kilned at a higher temperature from the green stage. Procedures vary but here’s what I did:

From the green stage I kilned it at 212 F for 5 hours

Cured at 350 F for 40 minutes

Chocolate Caramel malt (my own creation):

Green two row with the acrospire at 75 to 100% the length of the grain stored in a bag with no oxygen for 24 hrs at 5-10 C  40-50F ( I had to do this because I was kilning my pale malt during this time and there was no more room in the oven. Removing the oxygen and replacing it with CO2 if you can, will halt the growth of the barley. This is called couching.

Stewed it at 49-54C 120-130 F in a dutch oven type pot with the lid on for 12 hrs. Also kept it damp by spraying water on it 3 times during the 12 hrs.

Raised the temperature to 65-71C  150-160 F for 3 hrs. Still in the pot.

Dried it on a screen at 175F with a fan for 10 hrs. The temp. went up at the beginning to 200 F for 1 hour accidentally.

Cured it at 325 for 1 hour.

Light Chocolate malt:

Soaked 6-row pilsner malt for 30 min

Put it in the oven at 65-71C  150-160 F for 2 hrs.

Raised temperature to 250 for 30 min to dry grains

300 F for 20 min

325 F for 15 min

Then 380 F for 1 hr.  This is low for chocolate malt. 425-480 F is normal, also for 1-1 1/2 hr.

Brumalt, Melanoidin, Honey type malt:

This is the closest I’ve come so far to Honey malt, this will give you a sweet yet sour malt (low pH) that’s around 30L and maintains some diastatic power.

Steep until 48%

Germinate at least 6 days at 13C, acrospires at 3/4  then 24 at room temp. 22C (acrospires on average are now the full length of grain)

Couch (lactic acidification phase) in a zip-loc bag sealed for 16 hours at 37C. For less sourness: Use less time here or do not seal in a bag but cut off ventilation instead.

ramp up temp to 50C (proteolysis phase) and hold for 8-10 hours for about a 30L colour, Add more time for more colour 16-18 hrs.= very dark

Kiln at 40-45C for 24 hours or until moisture is below 10%


1 hour at 175F  79C

1 hour at 185F  85C

3 hours at 190C  88C

Special B:

Used the Conlon barley –  45% moisture content. Germinated  at 15C (59F)

Brought inside when acrospire =3/4

Last 24 hrs of germination at room temperature. Acrospire =full length of grain

Placed in a pot with a tight lid in the oven for 12 hrs. @ 50C or 122F

Temp. then increased to 149-158F for 4 hours

Taken out of pot and put on to drying screen in the oven @ 200F for 5 1/2 hours

I did not spray any additional water on it at any point. It seemed wet enough. Also I did plan to increase the temperature even more but when I tried the grains started to snap, so I kept the temperature at 200F and pretty soon the insides of the grain were very dark.

Diastatic Brown malt:

Green malt air dried for 2 days- room temperature

Kilned in an offset smoker with pecan wood pellets burned in paint can wood gassifiers 115F for 3 hours (one gassifier)

Cured 3 hours at 175-250F Temp varied but stayed mostly at 215F.

This created a beer the colour of a darker pale ale. I will be doing this one again sometime this year (2014) to get a darker coloured malt.

Munich and Aromatic malt: 

Steep until moisture content is 47-48% (8 hrs soaking, 8 hrs. resting for 3 days) at 10-15 C (50-59F)

Germinated at 15-18 degrees until acrospire reached 1/3 length of the grain, 3-4 days. Brought inside at 20 C (68F) for last 24 hrs.

Last 24 hrs inside, acrospire reached the full length of the grain. Grain temperature reached 25 C (77F)

Another option is to germinate between 20-25C for the duration

Kilned with little to no ventilation increasing temp. up to 50C 122 F  until moisture is between 20-25% 12 hours

Raise temperature to stew at 60-65°C 140-149°F with no ventilation for 4-6 hours, then ventilate until moisture is below 10%

Cured at 195 F for 3 hrs. Can be cured at 185-200F 3-5 hrs. depending on the malting company and colour desired.

It’s a light Munich at this point and has that sweet rich toasty flavour. I took half of it after kilning to make Aromatic malt. This can be cured between 220-235F for 3-5 hrs.

Here’s a different schedule for Munich from Briggs Malts and Malting describing an old method on a two tier kiln.

  • Steep to 45% with a long warm germination
  • 24 hrs at 38C with a slow airstream for limited stewing. Moisture down to 15-25%
  • Temperature then raised to 75C (167F) for 12 hours
  • Cured at 189-212F (87-100C) or even 221F (105C) for 2 hours


Roasted Barley:

6-row barley roasted between two cookie sheets at 480F for 1 hour turning every 10-15 minutes. Be warned it gets very smokey.

Acid malt:

Start with green malt sealed in a ziploc bag, warm to 35C or 95F for 36 hours. sqeeze out any air or carbon dioxide during the process. Dry at 95F for 3 hours.


  • 42% moisture content
  • 4 days germinating 13C (55F)
  • 24 hrs with fan 28C 82F
  • Moisture at or below 10%
  • Cured at 175F 2 hrs (79C)
  • 180F 1 hr. (82C)
  • 185F 2 hrs. (85C)


  • 42% moisture content
  • 6 days germinating 13C (55F)
  • 24 hrs at 24C 75F with fan
  • Moisture below 10%
  • Cured 170F 1 hr. (77C)
  • 175F 1 hr. (79C)
  • 180F 1 hr. (82C)
  • 185F 2 hrs. (85C)
  • 190F 2 hrs.  (88C)

Khorasan (Kamut)

  • 40% moisture content (recommend higher moisture like 45%)
  • 6 days germinating (Also recommend longer germination if possible)
  • 24 hrs at 21C 70F with fan
  • 4 hrs 35-40C 95-104F ventillated but no fan
  • 2 hrs 40-50C 104-122F
  • 3 hrs 50C  122F
  • Cured 1 hr 175F  (79C)
  • 1 hr. 180F (82C)
  • 1 hr. 185F  (85C)
  • 2 1/2 hrs. 190F  (88C)

Caramel Khorasan (Kamut)

  • 40% moisture content (recommend higher moisture like 44%)
  • 6 days germinating (Also recommend longer germination if possible)
  • Covered with tin foil on baking tray
  • 2 hrs. 140-158F (60-70C) (malt temperature) expect kiln to be 160-175F (71-79C)
  • 2 hrs  158F (malt temp) still covered (70C)
  • 2 hrs. 175F (kiln temp) uncovered and on a screen for airflow (79C)
  • 1 hr. 225F  (107C)
  • 30 min 250F  (121C)

Happy Malting!


Posted by on October 22, 2014 in Malting times and temperatures

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